The Munsell color system is one system that specifies colors based on three color dimensions, hue, value, and chroma (difference from gray with a given hue and lightness).
Professor Albert H. Munsell, an artist, wanted to make a “rational way to describe color” in accordance with the principle of “perceived equidistance”, and therefore would use decimal notation rather than color names (that he felt were “foolish” and “misleading”). He first started focus on the program in 1898 and published it 100 % form in Color Notation in 1905. The munsell soil color chart is still used today.
Munsell constructed his system around a circle with ten segments, arranging its colors at equal distances and selecting them in such a way that opposing pairs would bring about an achromatic mixture.
The program includes an irregular cylinder together with the value axis (light/dark) running down and up through it, as does the axis of the earth.
Dark colors are at the bottom of the tree and lightweight on the top, measured from 1 (dark) to 10 (light).
Each horizontal “slice” in the cylinder throughout the axis is really a hue circle, that he split into five principal hues: red, yellow, green, blue, and purple, five intermediates, yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue, and red-purple.
Munsell hue is specified by selecting one of these brilliant ten hues, and then referring to the angle inside them from 1 to 10.
“Chroma” was measured out from the center from the wheel, with lower chroma being less saturated (washed out, including pastels). Note that there is absolutely no intrinsic upper limit to chroma. Different parts of the colour space have different maximal chroma coordinates. For example light yellow colors have significantly more potential chroma than light purples, as a result of nature of the eye along with the physics of color stimuli. This led to a variety of possible chroma levels, and a chroma of 10 may or may not be maximal depending on the hue and value.
One is fully specified by 85dexupky the 3 numbers. For instance a reasonably saturated blue of medium lightness would be 5B 5/10 with 5B meaning the color in the center of the blue hue band, 5/ meaning medium lightness, along with a chroma of 10.
The initial embodiment of the system (the 1905 Atlas) had some deficiencies as being a physical representation of your theoretical system. These were improved significantly inside the 1929 Munsell Book of Color and thru a thorough number of experiments performed by the Optical Society of America in the 1940’s resulting in the notations (sample definitions) for your modern Munsell Book of Color. The program remains traditionally used in many different applications and represents among the best available data sets on the perceptual scaling of lightness, chroma and hue.
Advantages: A somewhat simple system for comparing colors of objects by assigning them a collection of numbers according to standard samples. Commonly used in practical applications such as painting and textiles.
Disadvantages: Complementary colors will not be on opposite sides, in order that one cannot predict the final results of color mixing well.